Utilities generate their entire revenue from customers, who represent a load on the system. There are three kinds of load:

  1. residential, commercial, and industrial customers
  2. bulk delivery points to reselling utilities
  3. special-purpose devices such as streetlights and traffic control signals

    Demand is the load at the receiving terminals averaged over a specified interval of time. Demand is expressed in real power, apparent power, or current—kilowatts, reactive volt-amperes, volt-amperes, or amperes. Information about the location and size of loads on the system is essential for operations, design, and planning for current and future facilities.

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